THREE TECHNIQUES OF YARN SPINNING
wool, and man-made staple products are converted to yarn by a process
called spinning. Upholstery fabric yarns are spun by three basic
wrap spinning, a bundle of parallel fibers is wrapped in a spiraling
fashion with other fibers. A bundle may contain 150-200 individual
fibers along its length, yet not be thicker than a paper clip.
Yarns spun by other methods are similar in size. Warp spinning
is suitable for making strong, dense yarns.
In ring spinning a parallel bundle
of fibers is tightly twisted for cohesion and strength. No wrapper
fiber is needed.
With open end spinning the yarn has individual
fibers that are not arranged as uniformly as in wrap or ring spun
yarns. Most of the fibers are generally parallel, but with lots
of crisscrossing, while some fiber irregularly wraps around the
THREE MAJOR METHODS OF
Upholstery fabrics are constructed for durability
and stability on quality furniture by three processes: Weaving,
Tufting and Knitting
Woven fabrics interlace yarns essentially at right angles. Both
velvet and flatwoven constructions are used for upholstery. In
velvet wovens, the plush pile is locked in by an interlocking
system as shown here.
Flatwoven construction techniques range from simple
basket-weaves to complex jacquard structures with patterns typical
of brocade and damask.
In tufted material, the pile is sewn into
a backing material. Tufted fabrics can be dyed to solid shades
or patterns using special technology. Striped fabrics can be tufted
by using colored yarns.
Velvet fabrics knitted on a Raschel machine
are similar to woven velvets except the pile tufts are locked
into loops rather than a crisscrossed structure. Knitted fabrics
like these are suited for furniture that requires fitting fabric
over many curves.
COLORS AND FINISHING
COLORS Color is the most important attribute to consumers
in choosing an upholstered piece of furniture. The colors in fabrics
are infinite. They can be solids, multi-colored stripes, or other
pattern effects such as florals and geometries. Dyeing of the
material can be done at any stage of making the fiber, yarn, or
fabric. The desired effect to be achieved will usually dictate
the dyeing method.
For example, a multi-colored floral pattern
requires the individual yarns to be pre-colored to as many different
shades as there are in the desired pattern. The various colored
yarns are then constructed into the floral pattern fabric.
By contrast, a solid color can be achieved by constructing
the fabric first and then dyeing the fabric. Another way to achieve
a solid color or multi-color effect would be to use pre-dyed fiber,
produce the colored yarn, and then construct the fabric. This
assures consistently uniform color. Printing is localized coloration
that also achieves multi-colored effects.
Finishing follows coloration. This treatment can
be mechanical, chemical, or both. The mechanical treatment is
done at the textile mill, prior to shipment to the furniture manufacturer.
It can be one of various surface treatments. Brushing and polishing
of velours, for example, can provide extra sheen and luster.
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