Jersey Knit

New Knit and Yarn Resource

 

Learn about knit construction, fabrics and yarn. See images of each type along with a description. Great for understanding properties and benefits. See and Learn.

 

 


Performance Term Glossary

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A
Abrasion Resistance - The degree by which a fabric is able to withstand loss of appearance through surface wear, rubbing, chafing, and other frictional actions.
  Absorbency - The ability of a fabric to take in moisture. Absorbency is a very important property, which effects many other characteristics such as skin comfort, static build-up, shrinkage, stain removal, water repellency, and wrinkle recovery.
  Acrylic - A manufactured fiber derived from polyacrylonitrile. Its major properties include a soft, wool-like hand, machine washable and dryable, excellent color retention. Solution-dyed versions have excellent resistance to sunlight and chlorine degradation.
  Air Permeability - The porosity of a fabric as estimated by the ease with which air passes through it. Air permeability measures the warmth of blankets, the air resistance of parachute cloth, the wind resistance of sailcloth, etc. as measured on standard testing equipment.
  Algaecide - Kills algae.
  Alpaca - A natural hair fiber obtained from the Alpaca sheep, a domesticated member of the llama family. The fiber is most commonly used in fabrics for dresses, suits, coats, and sweaters.
  Anti-Bacterial (Anti-Microbial) - A fabric that has been chemically treated or a fiber that is created by incorporating the anti-bacterial chemical agent into the fiber formula, making the finished fiber or fabric resistant to, or inhibiting the growth of micro-organisms.
  Anti-Static - Can be either a fiber or fabric that does not allow the build-up of static electricity to occur when the fiber or fabric experiences friction or rubbing.
  Antifungal - Inhibits or kills fungi.
  Aramid - A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain of synthetic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings. Aramid fabrics are very strong and are resistant to high temperatures and extreme external forces. Aramid fabrics are used in thermally protective clothing; (i.e. coveralls, jackets, gloves, shirts, pants). U.S. FTC Definition: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polyamide in that is at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings.
 
B
Bactericide - Kills bacteria.
  Bacteriostat - Doesn't necessarily mean that it kills bacteria. A stat means that it may simply be slowing growth or holding the death to growth rates of bacteria (same for fungal stats) more or less in equilibrium. Inhibits bacteria growth.
  Ballistic - A thick woven fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough; has a denier of about 2000, and is used in apparel, packs and gear.
  Bamboo Fabric - A natural textile made from the pulp of bamboo grass, it is considered sustainable, because the bamboo plant grows quickly and does not require the use of herbicides and pesticides to thrive. However, bamboo fiber is produced through the cellulosic process. Bamboo fabric retains many of the same qualities it has as a plant, including excellent wicking ability that pulls moisture away from the skin. It also retains antibacterial qualities, reducing bacteria that often thrives on clothing, which causes unpleasant odors.
  Base Layer - The apparel in contact with your skin. The purpose of the base layer is to keep you warm/cool and dry.
  Biomimicry - The science of evaluating how plants and animals survive in their natural habitats, and applying a similar process to the design of functional apparel.
  Blends - Combining of two or more types of staple fibers in one yarn to achieve color mixtures such as heather, unusual dyeing variations, or better performance characteristics. Blends of natural and man-made fibers are more important today than ever before and their number is virtually limitless.
  Bodymapping - The strategic placement of component materials in garment design and construction to provide the best possible movement and balance to enhance stamina or reduce fatigue for the wearer
  Bonding - The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics - usually a face fabric and a lining fabric of tricot - into one package. Special adhesives, binders, or thin slices of foam may be used as the marrying agent. Fabrics can also be bonded to ultra-thin slices of foam or other materials on the cutting tables, and make possible easier handling of fragile cloths such as delicate laces, sheer materials, or lightweight knits
  Bonding - A process for adhesive laminating of two or more fabrics or fabric and a layer of plastic by means of a bonding agent (adhesives, plastics or cohesion), or ultrasonic procedure. Bonded fabrics are commonly used in outerwear.
  Breathability - The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action. Also known as moisture transport.
  Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial - An antimicrobial that effectively controls or kills at least 3 of the basic microorganism groups. This term is important to help give a specific encompassing term to technologies that offer protection from the gamut of microorganisms, without the sometimes vague nature of the term antimicrobial, which could mean kills just one type or kills many types.
 
C
Clo Value - A unit of thermal resistance. The insulation required to produce the necessary heat to keep an individual comfortable at 21 degrees Centigrade with air movement at .1 m/s. One clo is about equal to the insulation value of typical indoor clothing.
  Comfort Stretch - The term given to the freedom of movement experienced in the wearing of a garment that contains spandex, or has stretch engineered into a yarn through mechanical stretch construction.
  Composite Fabric - An engineered fabric made from two or more components. One component is often a strong fiber such as fiberglass, Kevlar┬«, or carbon fiber that gives the material its tensile strength, while another component (often called a matrix) is often a resin, such as polyester or epoxy that binds the fibers together.
  Compression Fabric - A high tenacity stretch fabric which, when in a close fitting garment, provides muscles with a firm compression fit that lessons vibrations, reduces fatigue, and keeps muscles energized. The fabric is usually made in a knit construction, using a series of gradient fibers with an open knit inner surface to create a moisture transfer environment.
  Compression Stretch - The name given to the expansive stretch that is created by the spandex fibers used in the development of a compression fabric.
  Converter - A person or a company which buys grey goods and sells them as finished fabrics. A converter organizes and manages the process of finishing the fabric to a buyers' specifications, particularly the bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc.
  Core-Spun Yarns - Consist of a filament base yarn, with an exterior wrapping of loose fiber which has not been twisted into a yarn. Polyester filament is often wrapped with a cotton outer layer in order to provide the strength and resiliency of polyester, along with the moisture-absorbent aesthetics and dye affinity of cotton. Sewing thread as well as household and apparel fabrics are made from these yarns.
 
D
Denier - A system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. In the United States, this measurement is used to number all manufactured fibers (both filament and staple), and silk, but excluding glass fiber. The lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber. Numerically, a denier is the equivalent to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of continuous filament fiber.
  Down - The soft, fluffy fiber or underfeathers of ducks, geese, or other water fowl. Used primarily for insulation in outerwear garments.
  Durability - The ability of a fabric to resist wear through continual use.
  Durable Water Repellent (DWR) - Fabrics that retain their durability and their ability to repel water after wearing, washing, and cleaning. Typically involves a fabric with a coating
 
E
Eco - Of or relating to habitat or household, mostly used as a prefix related to ecology. Eco comes from the ancient Greek word "oikos" (house). e.g. eco-label, eco-friendly, eco-shopping. Within the textile industry, "eco" refers to fibers/fabrics that are sustainable or friendly to the environment.
  Eco-friendly - A term used to describe services and goods that cause very little, if any, harm to the environment.
  Elasticity - The ability of a fiber or fabric to return to its original length, shape, or size immediately after the removal of stress.
  Encapsulation - A process in which the fibers of a fabric are coated with a filmy substance to create certain high performance qualities, such as breathability.
  Ergonomic Seaming - This apparel construction technology is aimed at maximizing comfort and ease of movement. The key feature of this seaming technology is that the seams are constructed ergonomically. Therefore, the seams flow according to the body's natural movements, regardless of the type of activity engaged in by the wearer. The seams are placed away from potential pressure points, in order to maximize comfort and movement.
  Ergonomics - The study of improving a garment design by enhancing the wearers' comfort, performance, or health.
 
F
Fiber - The basic entity, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production of a fabric.
  Fiberfill - Specially engineered manufactured fibers, which are used as filler material in pillows, mattresses, mattress pads, sleeping bags, comforters, quilts, and outerwear
  Filament - A manufactured fiber of indefinite length (continuous), extruded from the spinneret during the fiber production process.
  Flame Resistant - Fabrics treated with special chemical agents or finishes to make them resistant to burning. Today many fabrics achieve this property by using fibers that have this property built directly into the polymer. A fabric is considered flame resistant if it passes federal specifications for specific end-uses.
  Flame Retardant - A chemical applied to a fabric, or incorporated into the fiber at the time of production, which significantly reduces a fabric's flammability.
  Fungicide - Kills fungi.
  Fungistat - Inhibits fungal growth.
 
G
Geotextiles - Manufactured fiber materials made into a variety of fabric constructions, and used in a variety civil engineering applications.
 
H
Hand - The way the fabric feels when it is touched. Terms like softness, crispness, dryness, silkiness are all terms that describe the hand of the fabric. A good hand refers to shape retention without stiffness.
  Hard Shell - A high-impact, abrasion-resistant outer fabric, which provides protection from the environment.
  Heavy Weight - Also called expedition weight. Most often use din base layers. Thick and warm, it is usually brushed on the inside for warmth and wicking, and smooth on the outside to protect.
  Hemp - >A coarse, durable bast fiber obtained from the inner bark of the hemp plant. Used primarily in twines and cordages, and most recently apparel.
  High Loft - A term given to a fiber structure that contains more air then fiber. It is a lofty, low-density material that is used in such applications as fiberfill, insulation, etc.
  Hollow Fiber - Manufactured fiber made with a hollow center.
  Hydrophilic Fibers - Fibers that absorb water easily, take longer to dry, and require more ironing. These fibers denote a finish that improves wearing comfort.
  Hydrophobic Fibers - Fibers that lack the ability to absorb water. These fibers denote a finish normally applied to create water-repellent products.
 
I
Infusion Technology - An infused polymer construction process that reinforces the fabric of outerwear garments in the places where they take the most abuse: zipper and pocket flaps, and other high-abrasion areas. The technology blends polymers, penetrates deep into the inner fibers, and surrounds them to form a permanent bond. this tough, resilient matrix ensures a highly wear-resistant surface while allowing the fabric to remain lightweight and flexible. The infused polymer process eliminates the need for heavier-weight abrasion overlays, tapes anhd bindings, and adds increased strength to the most crucial points on the garment, which dramatically extends the life of the garment.
  Insulation - With respect to a fabric, a material that protects from the loss of warmth or the penetration of cold.
  Interfacing - Fabrics used to support, reinforce and give shape to fashion fabrics in sewn products. Often placed between the lining and the outer fabric., it can be made from yarns or directly from fibers, and may be either woven, nonwoven, or knitted. Some interfacings are designed to be fused (adhered with heat from an iron), while others are meant to be stitched to the fashion fabric.
  Interlining - 1. An insulation, padding, or stiffening fabric, either sewn to the wrong side of the lining or the inner side of the outer shell fabric for extra weight and warmth. The interlining is used primarily to provide warmth in coats, jackets, and outerwear. 2. Firm stiff linen canvas for men's coats.
  Interlock - A special type of eight-lock knit cloth. The stitch variation of the rib stitch, which generally resembles a double 1 x 1 ribbed fabric that is interknitted with crossed sinker wales. Plain (double knit) interlock stitch fabrics are thicker, heavier, and more stable than single knit constructions. The fabric has a smooth surface on both sides, and possesses good wearing qualities.
 
K
Kapok - A short, lightweight, cotton-like, vegetable fiber found in the seed pods of the Bombocaceae tree. Because of its brittle quality, it is generally not spun. However, its buoyancy and moisture resistance makes it ideal for use in cushions, mattresses, and life jackets.
  Knit Fabric - Fabrics made from only one set of yarns, all running in the same direction. Some knits have their yarns running along the length of the fabric, while others have their yarns running across the width of the fabric. Knit fabrics are held together by looping the yarns around each other. Knitting creates ridges in the resulting fabric. Wales are the ridges that run lengthwise in the fabric; courses run crosswise.
  Knitting - The art and science of constructing fabric by interlooping of yarn loops, through the use of needles and a "loop within a loop". The most essential unit in a knit fabric is the loop or stitch. A vertical row of stitches is called a WALE; the horizontal or crosswise row of stitches is known as a COURSE. The number of wales per inch, measured across the fabric depends on the count or size of the yarn used, and the number of needles per inch in the machine. The two major classes of knitting are warp and weft.
  Knitting (Circular) - A weft knitting process where the fabric is a tube,.with the threads running continuously around the fabric. Double- knit fabrics are produced on a circular knitting machine equipped with two sets of latch needles situated at right angles to each other.
  Knitting (Flat or Single) - A weft knitting process where the fabric is in flat form. The threads run back and forth across the fabric. Shape can be added in the knitting process by increasing or decreasing the loops or stitches. Full-fashioned garments are made on a flat-knitting machine. Also called plain knit, a fabric constructed with one needle bed and one set of needles.
  Knitting (Warp) - A type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps on beams. Examples of this type of knitting include tricot, Milanese, and Raschel knitting.
  Knitting (Weft) - A type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise in the fabric making all of the loops in one course. Weft knitting types are circular and flat knitting.
 
L
Laminated Fabric - A term used to describe fabrics which have been joined together through the use of a high-strength reinforcing scrim or base fabrics between two plies of flexible thermoplastic film.. It can a bonded utilizing either foam itself, or some other material, such as adhesives, heat, or chemical bonding agents.. See BONDING.
  Latent Heat - The quantity of heat absorbed or released by a substance undergoing a change of state, such as ice changing to water or water to steam, at constant temperature and pressure. When a solid material is heated and reaches its melting point, it goes from solid to liquid. During this process the material absorbs a certain amount of heat, Despite the heat input, the temperature of the material stays at a relatively constant level, even though phase change is taking place. We thus speak of latent (concealed) heat having been taken up by the material.
  Leight Weight - Having an airy weave. Used as a light weight base layer in apparel for aerobic activities and cool weather.
  Lining - A fabric that is used to cover the inside of a garment to provide a finished look. Generally, the lining is made of a smooth lustrous fabric.
  Loft - High loft is thick and fluffy, low loft is thin and dense. The higher the loft, the better the insulation characteristic.
 
M
Merino - A type of wool that originates from pure-bred Merino sheep. The best Merino wool comes from Italy. The highest, finest and best wool obtained anywhere in the world. This fiber is used only in the best of woolen and worsted fabrics, billiard cloth, etc.
  Mesh - A type of fabric characterized by its net-like open appearance, and the spaces between the yarns. Mesh is available in a variety of constructions including wovens, knits, laces, or crocheted fabrics.
  Microclimate - The temperature and humidity of the space between your skin and the base layer of clothing.
  Microdeniers - One of the most important developments in spinning man- made fibers is the technology of microdeniers where continuous filament fibers emerge from a spinnerette less than one denier per filament in weight. This makes polyester, nylon, acrylic, or rayon, thinner than a silk-worm's web, which is one denier per filament. by comparison, a human hair is generally 2 to 4 deniers per filament. These superfine fibers have made a striking impact on fashion around the world in dress, sportswear, intimate apparel and activewear fabrics.
  Microfibers/Microdeniers - The name given to ultra-fine manufactured fibers and the name given to the technology of developing these fibers. Fibers made using microfiber technology, produce fibers which weigh less than 1.0 denier. The fabrics made from these extra-fine fibers provide a superior hand, a gentle drape, and incredible softness. Comparatively, microfibers are two times finer than silk, three times finer than cotton, eight times finer than wool, and one hundred times finer than a human hair. Currently, there are four types of microfibers being produced. These include acrylic microfibers, nylon microfibers, polyester microfibers, and rayon microfibers.
  Microfleece - A soft, luxorous fabric with a velvety feel.
  Micron - A unit of measure that describes the average staple fiber diameter in a lot of wool. Over he past 30 years, the Micron measurement has evolved to become the predominant term used commercially to describe the fineness of a wool fiber. A Micron is determined by the actual measurement when the wool lots are tested for sale during wool processing. Most wool fibers range in the area of 18-40 micron. Merino wool falls into the 18-24 micron range. The 25-32 micron, medium range wool, is usually defined by the word "Shetland", and is used in such applications as blankets and knitwear apparel. The 33-40 range Micron usually describes the wool most often used in the carpet industry.
  Microporous - A coating on a fabric that breathes through microscopic pores.
  Middle Weight - A weave that is tighter than lightweight, which combines warmth and wickability.
  Mohair - The long, lustrous and strong hair fibers from the Angora goat. End-uses include sweaters, coats, suits, and scarves.
  Moisture Regain - The amount of water a completely dry fiber will absorb from the air at a standard condition of 70 degrees F and a relative humidity of 65%. Expressed as a % of the dry fiber weight.
  Moisture Transport - The movement of water from one side of a fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical or electrostatic action.
 
N
Nano-technology - Complex technology that involves nano-size materials and combines science such as biology, chemistry and physics and engineering.
  Nanofiber - Refers to fibers that are typically manufactuered through an electrospinning process, which spins fibers in diameters ranging from 10nm (nanometers) to several hundred nanometers, but usually less than 1,000 nm. In scientific terms, nanofibers are generally considered as having a diameter of less than one micron. The name nanofiber comes from the nanometer, which is a scientific unit of measurement representing a billionth of a meter, or three to four atoms wide. Current uses for nanofiber technology is in the fields of medical products, consumer products, industrial products, and high-tech applications for aerospace, capacitors, transistors, drug delivery systems, battery separators, energy storage, filtration, fuel cells, and information technology.
  Nanometer - This measurement used to describe a nanofiber refers to 1 billionth of a meter, or 1 x 10-8 centimeter. 150,000 strands of a nanofiber can fit across a human hair.
  Net - An open mesh fabric of rayon, nylon, cotton, or silk; made in a variety of geometric-shaped meshes of different sizes and weights, matched to various end-uses. The net is made by knotting the intersections of thread or cord to form the mesh.
  Nonwoven Fabric - A textile structure held together by interlocking of fibers in a random web, accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means. Generally, crimped fibers that range in length from 0.75 to 4.5 inches are used.
  Novelty Yarn - A yarn that is intentionally produced to have a special or unique effect. These effects can be produced by twisting together uneven single yarns, by using yarns that contain irregularities, or by twisting yarns that contain a color variance. A slubbed yarn is an example of a novelty yarn.
  Nylon - Produced in 1938, the first completely synthetic fiber developed. Known for its high strength and excellent resilience, nylon has superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility. A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polyamide.
 
O
Off-pressing - Pressing done after the garment is completely sewn.
  Olefin (polyolefin/polypropylene) - A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Olefin is also good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include activewear apparel, rope, indoor-outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.
 
P
Performance Fabrics - Fabrics made for a variety of end-use applications, which provide functional qualitites, such as moisture management, UV protection, anti-microbial, thermo-regulation, and wind/water resistance.
  Perspiration Resistant - Said of fabrics or garments that resist acid or alkaline perspiration. Laboratory test results should be consulted prior to selling any fabric or garment as perspiration- resistant.
  Phase Change Materials - A hydrophilic compound applied to a fiber or fabric which results in superior breathability and a moisture management system within the fabric that helps to maintain a comfortable body temperature when the garment is worn.
  Pick - A filling yarn that runs crosswise between selveges in woven goods. The pick intersects with the warp (or lengthwise yarn) to form a woven cloth.
  Pile Fabric - A fabric in which certain yarns project from a foundation texture and form a pile on the surface. Pile yarns may be cut or uncut in the fabric. Corduroy and velveteen are examples of cut filling pile fabrics.
  Pile Knit - A type of knit construction which utilizes a special yarn or a sliver that is interlooped into a standard knit base. This construction is used in the formation of imitation fur fabrics, in special liners for cold weather apparel such as jackets and coats, and in some floor coverings. While any basic knit stitch may be used for the base of pile knits, the most common is the jersey stitch.
  Pilling - A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric, as a result of wear, abrasion, or continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric.
  Plaited Fabric - In Woven Fabrics: A narrow fabric made by crossing a number of sturdy yarns diagonally, so each strand passes alternatively over or under one or more of the other stands. Typically used in shoe laces and suspenders. In Knitted Fabrics: Also known as bi-ply knitting, this special knit construction uses the addition of a second yarn within the same stitch. The second yarn is generally of a different color or type. During the knitting process the second yarn is placed under the first yarn, so that each yarn can be rolled to a specific side of the fabric. In many cases, one yarn/color appears on the face of the fabric, and the other yarn/contrast color appears on the back.
  Plaited Yarn - A yarn covered by another yarn.
  Plied Yarn - A twisting together of two or more single yarns in one operation.
  Polyester - A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is the most commonly used manufactured fiber worldwide. The fiber-forming substance in polyester is any longchain, synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid. Polyester has high strength (although somewhat lower than nylon), excellent resiliency, has high abrasion resistance, and resists shrinking, stretching and wrinkles. Polyester's low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly. Polyester fabrics are used in apparel and home furnishings (i.e. bedspreads, bedsheets, draperies and curtains). Industrial polyesters are used in ropes, tire reinforcements, safety belts, and plastics. Polyester fiberfill is used as stuffing in cushions, comforters, and pillows.
  Polypropylene (Olefin or Polyolefin) - A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene is also good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include thermal underwear, activewear apparel, rope, indoor-outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.
  PTFE Fabric - A fabric made from Polytetrafluoroethylene, such as Gore-Tex.
 
R
Reflective Insulation Technology - All materials emit energy by thermal radiation as a result of their temperature. The amount of energy or radiant heat reflected depends on the surface temperature. The higher the surface temperature is, the greater the reflection will be. Reflective Insulation Technology has been used by NASA since the earliest satellites, and continues to be used today as the primary space suit insulation to protect every astronaut in space from the extreme temperatures of outer space. The technology is effective in temperatures as high as 120 degrees C. (250 degrees F.) to as low as -273 degrees C. (-400 degrees F.)
  Repellency - The ability of a fabric to resist such things as wetting and staining by water, stains, soil, etc.
  Resiliency - The ability of a fabric to spring back to its original shape after being twisted, crushed, wrinkled, or distorted in any way.
  Rip-stop Nylon - A lightweight, wind resistant, and water resistant plain weave fabric. Large rib yarns stop tears without adding excess weight to active sportswear apparel and outdoor equipment such as sleeping bags and tents. Cloth used originally for parachutes and sails, now finding favor in fashion and accessories.
 
S
Seamless Knitting - A unique process of circular knitting, done on either Santoni or Sangiacomo knitting machines. This circular knitting process essentially produces finished garments with no side seams, which require only minimal sewisng to complete the garment. Seamless knitting can transform yarn into complete garments in a fraction of the time it takes for traditional garment manufacturing, by minimizing the traditional labor-intensive steps of sutting and sewing.
  Seamless Technology - This term can refer to either "seamless knitting" (See Seamless Knitting), or "welding/bonding technology", which uses a bonding agent to attach two pieces of fabric together, and eliminates the need for sewing threads. (See welding.)
  Smart Textiles - Textiles that can sense and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical , thermal, chemical, magnetic and other sources.
  Soft Shell - Soft shell fabrics combine the benefits of hard shell fabrics with a breathable, flexible, comfortable fabric. Stretch wovens with a DWR treatment.
  Soil Release Finish - A finish that has the purpose of increasing the absorbency of a fabric. on durable press blends. The finish allows the stain to leave the fabric faster, increases the wicking action for improved comfort, and therefore imparts greater ease in cleaning. Some soil release finishes also provide resistance to soiling as well as ease of soil removal.
  Solution-dyed - A type of fiber dyeing in which colored pigments are injected into the spinning solution prior to the extrusion of the fiber through the spinneret. Fibers and yarns colored in this manner are color-fast to most destructive agents.
  Spacer Fabric - Two separate fabrics faces knitted independently and then connected by a separate spacer yarn. These fabrics can be produced on both circular and flat knitting machines. Spacer fabrics have the properties of good breathability, crush resistance, and a 3D appearance.
  Spandex Fiber - A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still recover to its original length. This fiber is widely used in the manufacturing of garments to create elasticity.
  SPF (Sun Protection Factor) - SPF measures the effectiveness of sunscreen on the body. the test for SPF is done by using a living organism or body to measure the length of time it takes for the skin to redden without coverage or protection.
  Spun Yarn - A yarn made by taking a group of short staple fibers, which have been cut from the longer continuous filament fibers, and then twisting these short staple fibers together to form a single yarn, which is then used for weaving or knitting fabrics.
  Stain Repellent - The ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining by water.
  Stain Resistance - A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains.
  Staple Fibers - Short fibers, typically ranging from 1/2 inch up to 18 inches long. Wool, cotton, and flax exist only as staple fibers. Manufactured staple fibers are cut to a specific length from the continuous filament fiber. Usually the staple fiber is cut in lengths ranging from 1-1/2 inches to 8 inches long. A group of staple fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which is then woven or knit into fabrics.
  Storm Shell - Wind proof, wind resistant outerwear.
  Substrate - Fabric on which coatings or other fabrics are applied; a support.
  Super Light Weight - Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight. These lightweight, packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics have a protection layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made from the extra lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.
 
T
Thermoregulation - The ability to maintain a constant temperature independent of dynamic (changing) environmental conditions.
  Twist - A term that applies to the number of turns and the direction that two yarns are turned during the manufacturing process. The yarn twist brings the fibers close together and makes them compact. It helps the fibers adhere to one another, increasing yarn strength. The direction and amount of yarn twist helps determine appearance, performance, durability of both yarns and the subsequent fabric or textile product. Single yarns may be twisted to the right (S twist) or to the left (Z twist). Generally, woolen and worsted yarns are S-twist, while cotton and flax yarns are typically Z-twist. Twist is generally expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpc).
 
U
U.L. Down - Ultra Light Down is used in women's and men's jackets. the concept is to make the lightest and warmest insulation layer available. U.L. Down jackets weigh less than a tee-shirt, blocks more wind, is warmer than even the heavist fleece jackets, and compress to the size of a water bottle. This outerwear can be used when warmth is critical, minimal weight is paramount, and space is at a premium.
  Ultra-Light Weight - Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight. Lightweight packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics have a protective layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made from extra lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.
  UPF (Ultraviolet Protection Factor) - The UPF rating indicates how effective a fabric is at blocking out solar ultraviolet radiation from reaching the skin. UPF ratings range from 15 to 50 with higher ratings indicating more effective blocking and therefore better protection for the wearer of a garment. Fabrics that test higher than UPF 50 are rated as UPF50+. UPF testing involves exposing a fabric to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and measuring how much is tranmitted through the sample. Different wave-lengths of radiation in the UVR spectrum have different effects on human skin and this is taken into consideration when calculating the UPF rating. Factors that contribute to the UPF rating of a fabric are: *Composition of the yarns (cotton, polyester, etc) *Tightness of the weave or the knit (tighter improves the rating) *Color (darket colors are generally better) *Stretch (more stretch lowers the rating) *Moisture (many fabrics have lower ratings when wet) *Condition (worn and faded garments may have reduced ratings) *Finishing (some fabrics are treated with UV absorbing chemicals)
  UV Degradation - The breaking down of fibers or fabrics when exposed to ultraviolet rays.
 
V
Velcro® - Nylon material made with both a surface of tiny hooks and a complementary surface of an adhesive pile, used in matching strips that can be pressed together or pulled apart for easy fastening and unfastening.
  Velour - A medium weight, closely woven fabric with a thick pile. It can be made using either a plain weave or a satin weave construction. It resembles velvet, but has a lower cut pile. End uses include apparel, upholstery, and drapes.
  Virgin Wool - New wool that has never been used before, or reclaimed from any spun, woven, knitted, felted, manufactured or used products.
 
W
Warmth to Weight Ratio - A measurement used to evaluate the effectiveness of an insulated product in relation to weather conditions and the environment. The insulation with the best rating is down. Down provides the best warmth to weight ratio over almost any other insulation material, which is why you will see down garments and sleeping bags as the primary choice for use in almost every high altitude, cold weather expedition.
  Warp Knitting - A type of knitted fabric construction in which the yarns are formed into stitches in a lengthwise manner. There are two basic types: weft knits and warp knits. Warp knits are knitted with intermeshing loops disposed in a lengthwise or warp direction, while weft knits have their loops intermeshed in a width-wise or weft direction. Warp knits are generally less elastic than weft knits. Common examples of warp knits are tricot knits and raschel knits.
  Water Repellent - Fabrics that have been treated with a finish which cause them to shed water and resist water penetration, but are still air-permeable. Treatments can include wax coatings, resins, silicones, and fluorine derivatives. Such treatments do not close the pours of the fabric, while waterproof finishes do.
  Water Resistant - Fabric treated chemically to resist water or given a "wax- coating treatment" to make it repellent. A degree by which water is able to penetrate a fabric. Not to be confused with water-repellent. However, the terms are often used interchangeably.
  Waterproof - A term applied to fabrics whose pores have been closed, and therefore, will not allow water or air to pass through them.
  Welded Shell - The outer layer of a bonded wor welded garment, such as a jacket.
  Welding - There are two basic methods for applying bonding or welded seams. The first method uses an adhesive film, and the application of heat to glue or laminate two substrates together. The second method involves gluing or attaching two fabrics, using ultrasonic technology. The creation and channeling of high frequency vibratory waves cause a rapid buildup of heat in synthetic fabrics to create the bonding.
  Wickability - The ability of a fiber or a fabric to disperse moisture and allow it to pass through to the surface of the fabric, so that evaporation can take place.
  Wicking - Dispersing or spreading of moisture or liquid through a given area by capillary action in a material.
  Wind Resistant - The ability of a fabric to act against or oppose the penetration of wind or air, but it is not totally windproof.
  Windproof - The ability of a fabric to be nonpermeable to wind and air.
  Wool - Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lamb. However, the term "wool" can also apply to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of the Cashmere or Angora goat or the specialty hair fibers of the camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna. Commonly used in slacks and outerwear.
  Wrinkle Recovery - Similar to resiliency. It is the ability of a fabric to bounce back after it has been twisted, wrinkled, or distorted in any way. Some fabrics are able to eliminate wrinkles because of their own resilience. Wool is among those, as are thermo- plastic manufactured fibers and chemically-treated cottons. Laboratory tests are made to determine the amount or degree a fabric will recover from wrinkling.

 
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